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Conditions and Treatments

Types of Stroke

  • Ischemic stroke – When a clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain.
  • Hemorrhagic stroke – When a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, or when a brain aneurysm ruptures.
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) – A transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by lack of blood flow to the brain, spinal cord, or eye, without the damage associated with a complete stroke. A TIA may be considered a warning sign that a stroke will occur.

Learn more about strokes »


Treatment for stroke is dependent on rapid diagnosis of the stroke type and then the rapid delivery of care to salvage tissue at risk, prevent complications related to stroke, restore function (limit disability), while closely monitoring recovery, determining stroke cause and secondary prevention. Additional treatments include:

  • Injection of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, the gold-standard in ischemic stroke care utilizing a drug designed to break apart the clot
  • Endovascular clot removal, mechanical disruption or removal of the clot using specialized endovascular approaches
  • Medical management in our specialized intensive care unit with dedicated and highly trained staff
  • Neurosurgical intervention to remove blood from within the skull cavity, reduce intracranial pressure or decompress injured tissue
  • Endovascular embolization of brain aneurysms
  • Endovascular embolization of arteriovenous malformations
  • Endovascular embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas
  • Microsurgical clipping of brain aneurysms
  • Microsurgical resection of arteriovenous malformations
  • Microsurgical resection of dural arteriovenous fistulas
  • Carotid endarterectomy (for carotid stenosis)
  • Endovascular angioplasty with stenting (for carotid stenosis)

Stroke Management
Charles Romero, MD, speaks about stroke treatment options available at UPMC Hamot.